The Area of Abou Rawash

It contains the pyramid group of king "Gad fe Raa "the son of king Cheops 8 km from the pyramid plateau.

 The ruins of a pyramid, a temple for funerals. the road to the pyramid of rituals and a hole for the boat. The valley is still unearthed.

 It is worth mentioning that the temple and the boat's hole has been found by the French archeologist "Emil Chasinas" in 1901,where he also found the ruins of the statues of king "Gad fe Raa".

 The most important is the beautiful head made of stone which is now in the Leuvre museum in France. They also found the ruins of a church from the Coptic Era.

The Giza Plateau 

The Giza plateau consists of lime stone layers which is a part of the Mokkatam plateau. During the era of the fourth dynasty three pyramids groups were built on the plateau for "Cheops". "Chephrin"  and  "Mysiremus". King Cheops who established the fourth dynasty, built the greatest pyramid of the 108 pyramids in Egypt. To its East there are four small pyramids. Three were for the queens. The fourth pyramids was used for the creed of the king. There is a huge graveyard for the members of the royal family. There is another graveyard for the important officials.

 The pyramid Group of King "Cheops"

The great pyramid is now 137 meters high. But its original height was 146 meters. Each of its four sides on its base is 230 meters, 2.300.000 blocks of lime stone were used to build the pyramid.

The Funeral Temple:

It was used to perform the funeral rituals. It is in the east of the great pyramid and is followed by the road that links the funeral temple to the temple of the valley.

 In the southern side of the great pyramid there are two holes for the boats of king cheops.

The pyramid Group of King "Chephrin" 

It is 143 meters high. Each side of its square base is 215 meters. The pyramid of "Chephrin" still keeps part of its outer layer near the top.

 It was built on high grounds which makes it seem as if is bigger than the pyramid of "Cheops". There is a funeral temple to its east.

The pyramid Group of King "Mysirenus" 

It is 73 meters high. Each base is about 108 meters. It is said that the outer layer of the pyramid was made of granite stone.

The statue of the Sphinx

This statue was made out of one stone. The sphinx is considered to be a guard of the Giza plateau. It is the body of a lion with a human head ( king "Chephrin" ) its body is 73.5 meters. Its height is 20 meters.

The sphinx is an embodiment of the God of the sun. There is a granite plate known as (The dream) put between the front paws of the sphinx.


The temple of Sphinx  

It is found in front of statue of sphinx. It has two entrances, one of the northern side and the other is in the southern side, in the eastern wall there are hollow cavities used for the rituals of the rise of the sun, while the hollow cavities in the western wall were used for the rituals of the sunset. In the middle of that temple there is a square yard open to the sky. Each side has six pillars. The 24 pillars are believed to represent the hours of the day and night.


The Boat of the Sun 

Its pieces were 1224 pieces made of wood brought from Lebanon. The boat is 43.3 meters long and its width is 5.6 meters

Zawyet El Aryan Area 

 located between Giza and Abusir to the west of the town, just in the desert area, is a necropolis, Almost directly east across the Nile is Memphis. In Zaweyt El Aryan, there are two pyramid complexes and five mastaba cemeteries

Layer Pyramid

 The layer pyramid was built in the third dynasty, probably during the reign of Khaba. The pyramid was meant to be a step pyramid of possibly five to seven steps. No casing stoneshave been found. suggesting that the pyramid was never finished. The layout of the underground chambers resembles that of the pyramid of Sekhemkhet. A corridor leading into the interior has thirty- two side chamers meant for storage of the burial equipment.

Unfinished Pyramid

This unfinished pyramid belongsto a king with an illegible name and comrise little more than a massive descendry. All that stands now is a square base on which the core of the pyramid would have been constructed. A pink granite sarcophagus was found in a trench which cuts through the structure, although it may date to a later time period. The existence of underground chambers has been suspected, but excavations have not been possible as the structure is now part of a military restricted zone. Also it is called the Northem Pyramid, this structure dates to the fourth dynasty.

Abu Gorab Area 

 Located in Egypt situated 15 km south of Cairo. between Sakkara and Al- Gin about 1 km north of Abusir, on the edge of the desert plateau on the western bank of the Nile.

 The locatlity is best known for its archeological sites which comprise the sun temple of pharaoh Nyuserre ini, the largest and best preserved such temple, as well as the sun temple of Userkaf,  both built in the 25th century BCE during the Old Kingdom Period. In addition, Abu Gorab is also the site of a First Dynasty cemetery In .

Abusir Area

Abusir is located several kilometers north of Sakkara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis

The locality of Abusir took its turn as the focus of the prestigious western burial rites operating out of the then- capital of Memphis during the Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty. As an elite cemetry, neighboring Giza had by then "filled up" with the massive pyramids and other monuments of the 4th Dynasty, leading the 5th Dynasty pharaohs to seek sites elsewhere for their own funerary monuments.

Ptahshepses "The writer"

 Ptahshepses (meaning "Ptah is foremost") was the viizier and son-in-law of the fifth Dynasty pharaoh Nyuserre Ini As such he was one of the most distinguished members of the royal court. Ptahshepsese mastaba complex is Abusir is considered by many to be the most extensive and architecturally unique non-royal tomb of the Old Kingdom.


Sakkara is considered as the greatest necropolis of the ancient capital of Egypt (Memphis) and it is located about 17 km of Giza govemorate, that necropolis had been used from the first dynasty of the Coptic period.

 The name of sakkara was derived from the name of god ''Soker" the local god of that necropolis which extending about 7 km from north to south.

The Stepped pyramid

 It is located to the north of sakkara, it was founded by king "zoser" the founder of the third dynasty, that pyramid considered as the first attempt to build a pyramid ' when (Imhotep) the great architect build the first step, so called (Mastaba) of that pyramid, then five steps (Mastaba) was added over each others over the lower part which contains the burial chamber includes many architectures elements which situated in huge enclosure wall which is about 544 meter in length, and 277 meter in wide, and it contains some races, the only entrance for Zoser's funeral complex situated on the eastern side of the great enclosure wall.

Necropolis of The archaic period:

 It contains some tombs belongs to and  1st and 2 st  dynasty, it belongs to senior states men and Royal courtiers. 

The pyramid of king Titi:

 King Titi is the founder of the 6" dynasty ,who was the one of the supporters of king unas against the priests of god (Raa) and their domination on the country's affairs ,king Titi was buried in this pyramid in Sakkara.

 Near by this area there are many of the important tombs such as the tomb of the minister (Merri Roka), and the tomb of the minister (ka Gemeny).

The pyramid of king Sekhm Khet:

 A few distance away to the west of the step pyramid ,in this area there are many tombs such as:(Betah Hotep) and (Akht Hotep)•

The Serabium:

 Some passages and tunnels were curved in the rock about 380 meter, has some sides room have 24 coffins, the serabium was used as tombs for the sacred bull so called (Ibis).

The pyramid of king unas:

 King Unas is considered as the latest king of the 5th dynasty, his pyramids considered the most ancient pyramid contained so it called (pyramids texts).

In Sakkara there are important tombs such as:

 Ero-ka-betah tomb. Khunum ptah tomb. Edout tomb. mahu tomb

The eastern sections of Sakkara:

Contains the following monuments:

 The vally temple of Unas pyramids, remains of the monastery of bishop Germes (Coptic period), as well as some tombs curved in the rocks belongs to the 26th dynasty, the most important one of them is the tomb of (bak-in-rn-if).

The south sections of Sakkara:

 Contains the following monuments:

 The pyramid of (Jed-Ka-ra), the pyramids of kings pipi the  1st and the 2nd both belong to the 6 th dynasty pyramid of (merry-in-raa), the queens pyramids of (neet-wa-ebout-wa-jb-ten),the tomb of king (sheb-sis-ka-if) the last king of the 4th dynasty so this tomb called (pharaoh Mastaba ).

The colonnade 

It is taking the shape of rectangular hall contains 40 columns in two rows, it was lifting the celling , those columns in papyrus shape there were triple statues representing king zoser with goddess of the diferent regions.

Met Rahina Mounments Area 

 King mena who united the two countries, made Mit Rahina village, located in Badrashine, the capital of Egypt in 3400 B.C. —It was called Memphis or Min Nefer.

The monuments area in Mit Rahina has the largest cemeteries in Egypt. Alexander the Great visited it and his mummy had been built these for almost a year before his cemetery in Alexandria was prepared. The famous statue of Ramsis II was also found there and transferred then to bab El Haded square(Ramsis square now) and then to the Grand museum, located on Cairo- Alex desert road.

 The most important monuments there belong to the modern state, such as the temple of god Betah, the local god of this area. The architectural elements of this temple belong to the era of king Ramsis II (1237 -1304 B.C.).

Statue of Ramsis II:

 It is a great and huge statue was, discovered in 820. It was made of stones similar to a lobster or made of an a morphous limestone as some people think. Its height was 13 meters before the breaking of its legs and its ears' length is almost half a meters.

 The king's name is engraved on its right shoulder and on an ornament on its chest. The statue has a dagger with two heads on shape of two hawks in a belt on its chest

In the statues hand there is a roll of papyurs which is may be a royal decree with the king's name. the statue weight about 100 tons. It was placed lying on his back and surrounded by a height frize of iron. Man should climb some steps to be able to watch it.

Alabasterine Sphinx Statue 

Sphinx statue in Memphis is one of the most beautiful sphinx statues in Egypt. It's known as alabasterine sphinx, as it's made of the albaster stone. Like the most of sphinx statues the albasterine sphinx has a king's head, which is the a symbol of the human intelligence and a lion's body, which is the symbol of the animal's ferocity. The king's head has a fake beard and the traditional head cover, which is a piece of stripped cloth.

 The statue is 8 meters long and 4 meters high and weight about 80  tons, so it's the heaviest sphinx statue

Kom El Khalil Area 

In kom El Khalil area there are ruins of the palace of king Mernbetah (1203 - 1213 B.C.) and a small temple of god Betah.

Mumification House of Ibis Bull  

Ibis Bull is considered as an embodiment of god Betah and was constructed by king shashank

 (924 - 945 B.C.).

 Ruins of Isis palace (26 th dynasty) ( 570 - 589 B.C.)

 The compartment of king seti I (1290 - 1305 B.C.)

The Area of Dahshour 

It is 10 km south of sakkara.

It contains:

The Curved Pyramid or the Southern Pyramid:

It was built by king Sinfro (2575 - 2551 B.C.) to be the first cemetery in the shape of pyramid, but the architect who built it faced several technical problems led him to change the declination angel which led to this curved shape.

The height of this pyramid is up to 101m.

The Northen Pyramid of King "Sinfro":

It was built by king Sintro " the founder of the forth dynasty ", the height of this pyramid is up to 99 m. it is 2 km in the north of the curved pyramid. It is known as the red pyramid.

The pyramid Of " Sinosert lll " (1841  - 1787 B.C.)

Its original height is 78 m. the burial chambers are made of granite stone as well as the coffin.

 Below the north corner there is a corridor leads to number of cemeteries of some of the royal princesses.

There are more cemeteries have been found at the southern side of the pyramid as well as three ships made of cedar wood.

 In 1994 , the cemetery of the queen "Khemet Nefr Raa" has been found.

The pyramid Of " Immnmhat III" (1844 – 1797 B.C. ( the 12 th dynasty):

Its height is up to 81 m. It's known as the black pyramid, it is located between the southern pyramids of king Sinfro and Dahshour village, it was covered by lime stone .

Source: General Administration of Tourism - Giza Governorate


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